Following the approval by the U.S. Senate of the USMCA, the last obstacle to its ratification in the United States after a long negotiation process, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau reaffirmed his commitment to the agreement that is called the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), which was adopted during his tenure. The three Member States have already approved the agreement in December, before their ratification process. “We asked the government to consider when it was ratified, especially in light of concerns expressed by the auto and milk sectors,” said conservative trade critic Randy Hoback. “They were very aware that it would take time for them to adjust before the agreement was implemented.” “The USMCA is a great victory for American agriculture and I am pleased that the Canadian Parliament has approved the agreement today,” said U.S. Agriculture Minister Sonny Perdue. “The USMCA locks in and expands access to our northern and southern neighbours. I thank President Trump for negotiating this agreement and for always supporting American farmers and ranchers. We will continue to work with Canada and Mexico to implement this agreement.
The United States, Mexico and Canada concluded negotiations in September 2018 for a new trade agreement to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and on January 29, U.S. President Donald Trump signed the new trade agreement. The fully ratified agreement will enter into force on the first day of the third month after the agreement of the three countries. The agreed text of the agreement was signed by the heads of state and government of the three countries on November 30, 2018, as an incidental event at the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina.  The English, Spanish and French versions will also be binding and the agreement will take effect after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling laws.  Canada announced Thursday evening in the United States and Mexico that it had completed its ratification process and was now ready to implement the measures of the revised North American trade agreement. “Now that the USMCA has been approved by all three countries, a new historic chapter has been opened for North American trade,” U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer said in a press release. “This pioneering achievement would not be possible without President Trump`s leadership and determination to strengthen our economy and the hard work of our negotiating partners in Canada and Mexico. The USMCA is the gold standard that will judge all future trade agreements, and citizens of all three countries will benefit from them for years to come.
Growing objections within Member States to U.S. trade policy and various aspects of the USMCA have had an impact on the signing and ratification process. Mexico said it would not sign the USMCA if tariffs on steel and aluminum were maintained.  Based on the results of the November 6, 2018 U.S. election, it has been speculated that the greater power of Democrats in the House of Representatives could jeopardize the passage of the USMCA agreement.   Bill Pascrell, a senior Democrat, argued for changes to the USMCA to pass Congress.  Republicans have opposed the USMCA provisions that impose labour rights on LGBTQ and pregnant workers.  Forty Republicans in Congress have asked Mr. Trump not to sign an agreement that includes “the unprecedented integration of sexual orientation and the language of gender identity.” As a result, Trump ultimately signed a revised version that required each nation only to “policies it deems appropriate to protect workers from discrimination in the workplace” and said the United States would not be required to introduce additional non-discrimination laws.  The Canadian government expressed concern about the changes that have occurred under the USMCA agreement.  The agreement between the United States of America, the United States of Mexico and Canada, commonly known as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, the